Sinus Bone Grafting
Sinus Bone Grafting for Dental Implants
One of the most common side effects of untreated and advanced periodontal disease is the loss of bone in the jaw. Should this happen, your dentist might suggest that you have a bone graft. This procedure is a form of minor surgery to help new bone to grow. The bone graft is usually taken from a different part of the body, or it may come from an animal, a donor, or even be made from synthetic materials. Typically, the material used in bone grafts consists of bone minerals that have been processed and that help the body to form more bone cells with time.
- There are some people who aren’t suitable candidates for bone grafting procedures. These include:
- Anyone with an active infection
- Anyone with immune deficiencies or who is immunocompromised
- Anyone undergoing chemotherapy or radiation
- Anyone who is nursing or who is pregnant
Bone Loss and Gum Disease
Periodontitis or periodontal disease is a term used to describe advanced gum disease which damages the bones, surrounding tissues and gums permanently. Over time, long-term tartar and plaque build-up initiates periodontitis. As a result, irritation occurs to the gums and they start separating from the teeth. Periodontal pockets begin to form under the patient’s gum line and eventually, tartar and plaque begin to collect in those deep pockets. When a patient fails to have their teeth professionally cleaned, the disease eventually results in bone and soft tissue loss. The body doesn’t grow any more bone cells naturally and, therefore, having bone grafts is the single effective option for treatment once the disease has reached this stage.
Dental Implants and Bone Grafts
Not only do bone grafts work to repair bone that has been damaged, but they also increase the chance of being able to save teeth from loss. When tooth loss happens because of periodontitis, dental implants can be placed once a bone graft has healed. A dental implant is an artificial tooth that has a screw-like shape and which bonds with the patient’s natural bone. In order to support the placement of implants successfully, sufficient healthy and strong natural bone must remain.
Bone Graft Types
There are 4 kinds of periodontal bone graft available:
When the surgeon uses the patient’s own bone to carry out a bone graft this is known as an autograft. Usually, the bone will be taken from the hip bone or the back of the jawbone. Not all patients are suitable for this form of graft. There can be considerable pain around the site used for the donor bone, and this causes a lot of challenges for some people. Usually, periodontists will use animal, synthetic or cadaver grafting material. Grafts are only taken from the patient themselves in the most severe cases. Autograft cost from $700 to $1000 for one area.
Patients who aren’t suitable candidates for autografts may be recommended to have an allograft which involves human bone being sourced from cadavers. This is an affordable and safe procedure which has a lower chance of infection. The cost of an allograft is from $700 to $1000 for one area.
Xenografts use bone taken from animals, usually a cow. Relatively successful, this procedure still has less chance of success than allografts or autografts as the bone is taken from another species. Xenografts don’t stimulate the patient’s body to create new bone. Rather, it forms a scaffold into which the bone will naturally grow. In a lot of cases, though, part of the bone graft will become the patient’s own bone. Xenografts cost from $700 to $1000 for one area.
Alloplasts use synthetic bone substitutes made from calcium, hydroxylapatite and phosphorus. The procedure holds no risk of disease transmission and small defects can be healed by themselves. Like a xenograft, alloplasts don’t stimulate the body’s own cells to create new bone. Alloplasts cost from $700 to $1000 for one area.
Sinus Lift Surgery: Before, During & After the Procedure
For patients who have lost some of their back teeth, their sinus may start to fall, filling in gaps caused by missing teeth. When this happens, a dental sinus lift could be the ideal solution. A sinus lift can restore the patient’s sinus back to normal, repairing the gap using bone grafts. Sinus lift surgery together with dental implant placement will cost from $3000 to $6000.
Before having bone graft procedures, patients are given a general anesthetic to put them to sleep so that they feel nothing during the procedure. The medication wears off after several hours and, while some pain after the operation is normal, after several days it will diminish. Discomfort may be experienced for some weeks, however. Eating soft food is essential while the mouth heals. Foods such as scrambled eggs, cooked vegetables, smoothies, oatmeal and mashed potato are good choices. Typically, a bone graft will fully heal within 4 – 6 weeks.
There are some side effects associated with having bone grafts. These include:
- Swelling of the gums
- Bruising or swelling of the skin
- Minor bleeding
- Problems with chewing, speaking or eating
Sometimes, having a bone graft may result in some health complications including:
- Negative reactions to anesthesia while having surgery
- Swelling, inflammation or pain around the grafting and donor sites
- Infection or bleeding
- Injury that affects the nerves
- Rejection or reabsorption of the bone graft
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